Observation and conversation
Observation and conversation are used to stay in touch with
the work and attitudes of project team members. The project management team
monitors indicators such as progress towards deliverables, accomplishments that
are a source of pride for team members, and interpersonal issues.
Project Performance Appraisals
The length and complexity of the project, organizational
policy, labor contract requirements, and the amount and quality of regular
communication determines the need for formal or informal project performance
appraisals. Project team members receive feedback from the people who supervise
their project work. Evaluation information also can be gathered from people who
interact with project team members by using 360-degree feedback principles,
which means that feedback regarding performance is provided to the person being
evaluated from many sources, including superiors, peers, and subordinates.
Objectives include defining roles and responsibilities, structuring time to
ensure team members resolve unknown or unresolved issues, developing individual
training plans, and the establishing specific goals for future time periods.
Greater productivity and positive working relationships are
the results of successful conflict management; where as scarce resources,
scheduling priorities, and personal work styles are major sources of conflicts.
Team ground rules, group norms, and solid project management practices, like
communication planning and role definition, reduce the amount of conflict. If
differences of opinion are managed properly then they can be healthy and can
lead to increased creativity and better decision-making. When the differences
become a negative factor, project team members are initially responsible for
resolving their own conflicts. The project manager should help facilitate a
satisfactory resolution incase conflict escalates. Conflict should be addressed
early and usually in private, using a direct, collaborative approach. If
disruptive conflict continues, increasingly formal procedures will need to be
used, including the possible use of disciplinary actions.
A written log can document persons responsible for resolving
specific issues as and when they arise in the course of managing a project team
by a target date which helps the project team monitor issues until closure.
Issue resolution addresses obstacles that can block the team from achieving its
goals. These obstacles can include factors such as differences of opinion,
situations to be investigated, and emerging or unanticipated responsibilities
that need to be assigned to someone on the project team.