We can divide MOSS 2007 architecture as logical, physical
and administrative. Logical Architecture provides framework for adding data. This
includes server farms and websites. It also provides provision for disabling
features. Physical Architecture consists of servers that store the data.
This in turn helps in managing configuration and data
related to a site. It also supports managing user profile imports. Administrative
Architecture helps to manage farm security configuration. This is used to
centrally manage server farm and shared services for the server farm.
The Logical architecture of MOSS 2007 provides a frame work.
The logical components of MOSS 2007 include server farms, Web applications,
Site Collections, Web sites, and features.
At the top of the hierarchy are server farms. A server farm
is a logical group of Web and application servers that share the same
configuration database. This database contains information about the roles
servers play in a server farm. For instance, a server can be a Web Front End
(WFE) or a database, and a search and indexing or mail server.
The next level in the hierarchy is Web applications. These
provide Web server functionality. When we create a Web application by using
MOSS 2007, a corresponding Web site is created on IIS. This Web site contains
settings that apply to a group of Site Collections under that Web application.
After Web applications, Site Collections is the next
hierarchy level. Site Collections determine the settings and the context for
grouping together a number of sites and sub sites.
In a Site Collection, sites have mutually exclusive content
and user lists. However, the sites may share content such as lists, site
templates, and Web Parts. A Site Collection is analogous to a traditional
top-level virtual directory in IIS.
MOSS 2007 Site Collections offer administrators the
flexibility to configure site quotas, backup processes, and other settings.
The next level in the MOSS hierarchy is a site. A site is a
grouping of data stored in lists, libraries, and Web Parts. Sites provide
features that are grouped under a single URL and a list of users who can access
the site. Only users who have access to a site can access it. The level of permission
determines what they can or cannot do on the site.
Sites perform different functions within MOSS 2007. Sites
can be compared with sub-folders under virtual directories in IIS.
At the end of the MOSS hierarchy are features. These are
customized elements that provide specific functionality and data as a part of a
larger solution. A feature can contain data, metadata, and functionality.
Features are used within sites and Site Collections.
Depending on the scope, a feature can be enabled or disabled at all or some
levels of the MOSS 2007 hierarchy from the site level to the server farm level.
The Logical features of Moss 2007 are in sync with physical
servers that store the data.
In order to configure a server farm, it is as important to
know how logical components are mapped with physical components in MOSS 2007
The Physical architecture of MOSS 2007
consists of a 3-tier model,
which consists of web servers at the front, application
servers in the middle and a database server at the back.
Front End Server
It manages requests for MOSS 2007 application.
It consists of several virtual directories. These provide
application features namely: Managing pages, Templates, Themes and WebParts
It provides application services that include managing user
profile searching, indexing, Excel Services, Audience
compilation, User profiles,
database, My Sites, Business
Data Catalogue (BDC) and synchronization. We can
configure different application servers for different services.
This is a collection of application servers
that provide shared services out to any portals or sites that need them. These
Stores and manages data that is generated by applications
This data might be configuration data, site data, Meta data, and index data.
All the members of a server farm must use the same database
This is because the Database server stores and manages
This configuration DB is responsible for controlling the
settings for the whole server farm.
Administrative Architecture supports three levels of
configuration settings that are stored in configuration database in SQL 2005.
Tier 1 stores and manages data that is generated by
applications and users. This data might be configuration data, site data, Meta data, and index data. All the members of a server farm must use the same database
server. This is because the Data base server stores and manages configuration
Database. This configuration Data base is responsible for controlling the
settings for whole server farm.
This tier includes all administrative features and
functionalities for managing shared services across a server farm. In this tier,
business unit IT administrators perform administrative tasks at the service
level. Some examples of these tasks are configuring search, indexing, or usage
This tier includes a wide variety of site-specific
management tasks such as Web part management, access management, and content
management. A tier 3 administrator is responsible for creating a new list on a
site, configuring access permissions for users, and modifying site hierarchy.