Importance of Scope in Project Management
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Project scope management is management of the process
required to ensure that the project includes all the work required and to
complete the project successfully.
The Project scope management plan describes:
How project scope will be defined
How detailed project scope statement will be developed
How work breakdown structure will be created
How scope verification will be performed
How project scope control will be done
|Tool and Techniques of Scope Planning|
Experts make decisions based on experiences of equivalent
Templates, Form, Standards
It may include templates for work breakdown structure, scope
management plan, and project scope change control.
|Outputs of Scope Planning|
Project Scope Management Plan
A project scope management plan is a part of the project
management plan. It provides guidance on how the project scope will be defined,
documented, verified, managed, and controlled. The components of a project
scope management plan include:
Process to prepare a project scope statement
Process to create WBS
Process for maintaining WBS and its approval
Process for verification and acceptance of project deliverables
Process to control changes in project scope (This process is
linked with integrated change control process)
Scope definition process is a detailed project which is
critical to project success.
In this process the project is defined with greater details
and with more specific information about the project. Stakeholder needs and
expectations are detailed in this document. The assumptions and constraints are
analyzed and detailed.
|Tools and Technique of Scope Definition|
Product analysis is performed for detailed understanding; this
may include product breakdown, Systems analysis, system engineering, value
engineering, value analysis, and functional analysis.
Identifying alternatives is a technique used to generate
different approaches to perform the work.
It includes techniques like brainstorming, lateral thinking,
Proof of Concept (POC), prototype, approach paper, etc.
Application experts provide inputs for creating a detailed
project scope statement.
Stakeholder analysis is a technique to identify the
stakeholders’ influence and their needs and expectations. The analysis helps in
selecting, prioritizing, and quantifying the needs, wants, and expectations to
ascertain the requirements. Subjective and unquantifiable expectations pose
high risk to project outcome.
|Output of Scope Definition|
|Project Scope Statement |
The project scope statement is a detailed description of
project work and deliverables along with project boundaries.
The detailed project scope statement includes:
This is measurable success criteria of the project. There
may be various objectives like business, cost schedule, technical and quality.
Objectives should be quantifiable and measurable.
Product Scope Description
A characteristic of products, services, or results for which
the project was undertaken falls under this category. This is a progressively
elaboration of product characteristics. Stakeholder analysis provides inputs
regarding prioritized requirements.
Conditions or capabilities that must be met or possessed by
the deliverables of the project to satisfy a contract, standard and/or
specification as applicable are project requirements.
An explicit description of what is included within the
project and what is excluded. All assumptions of stakeholders should be
carefully documented in order to define project boundaries.
Outputs of the project work that comprise the product,
service or result of the project are product deliverables. It may include
ancillary results, like project reports and documentation.
Project Acceptance Criteria
Process and criteria for accepting completed deliverables.
Specific project constraints associated with the project
scope that limit the team’s options, like predefined budget, imposed dates and
Specific project assumptions associate the project scope. It
may describe potential impact of those assumptions if they prove to be invalid.
Initial Project Organization
The project organization with the details of project team
and stakeholders make up this category.
Initial defined risks
Known risks, high attrition, quality resources availability,
technical complexity, lack of mature process capability, etc.
Milestones are decided by the customer or performing
organization. These imposed dates become schedule constraints.
Limitation on fund availability, including the time-frame.
Cost estimate for the project.
Project Configurations Management Requirements
Configuration management and change control requirements for
Identifies approval requirements that can be applied to
items, such as project objectives, deliverables, document and work.
|Requested change |
In the process of developing project scope statement,
changes may be requested in the project management plan and its subsidiary
plans. Integrated change control process is executed upon all change requests.
|Project scope Management Plan (Updates)|
Depending on approved change requests originated in Scope
Definition process, the project scope management plan needs to be updated.
|Creating WBS (Work Breakdown Structure)|
The Work Breakdown Structure is a deliverable-oriented
hierarchical decomposition of the work to be performed by the project team to
The WBS subdivides the project work into smaller, more
manageable pieces of work. Each lower level of the WBS represents further
detailed breakup of the project work. Each lower level of the WBS represents
further detailed break-up of the project work. The Lowest level WBS nodes are
called work packages, which can be scheduled, estimated, monitored, and
controlled by an individual or a team.
A Work Breakdown structure is a result-oriented family tree
that captures all the work of a project in an organized way. It is often
portrayed graphically as a hierarchical tree; however, it can be a tabular list
“element" categories and task or the indented task list that appears in
your Gantt chart schedule.
The WBS is commonly used at the beginning of a project for
defining project scope, organizing Gantt schedules and estimating costs. It
lives on, throughout the project schedule and often is the main path for
reporting project costs. On larger projects, the WBS may be used throughout the
project to identify and track work packages, to organize data for Earned Value
Management (EVM) reporting and for tracking deliverables.
|Tools and Techniques for creating WBS|
Work Breakdown Structure Templates
WBS templates provide a project specific structure for
decomposition. As long as the projects are similar, these templates may be
created with inputs for previous projects. For example, software developments
have similar project life cycles ad similar deliverables.
Breakdown project deliverables into smaller, more manageable
components is called decomposition. Breakdown should not be done until the cost
and schedule for the work can be reliably estimated. The level of detail for
work packages will depend on the size and complexity of the project.
Steps to Create WBS
Identify final project products necessary for achieving
Identify the major deliverables necessary for project
Decompose until management requirements for managing and
controlling the project are met.
Review and refine the WBS until the stakeholders agree
with the level of project planning, reporting and deliveries.
|Create WBS: Outputs|
Project Scope Statement (Updates)
The project scope statement is updated to include changes
occurring due to approved changes if those requests are results of the Create
Work Breakdown Structure
WBS is generated by the Create WBS process which includes
WBS component, including work package and control accounts within a WBS.
WBS is different than other breakdown structures used to
present project information like:
Organizational Breakdown Structure(OBS)
Bill of materials(BOM)
Resource Breakdown Structure(RBS)
Work Breakdown Dictionary
WBS dictionary contains the list of all WBS along with the
details on the component associated with the WBS node.
Scope verification is the process of completed project scope
and deliverables by stakeholders. This includes performing review and getting
formal acceptance from stakeholders.
Scope verification process is different from quality control
process as in scope verification is concerned with the deliverables and work as
per project scope while the quality control process focuses on meeting the
quality requirements specified for the deliverables. Usually quality control is
performed before scope verification, but sometimes these processes can be
performed in parallel.
|Tools and Techniques of Scope Verification|
Inspection is a process of review and may include measuring,
examining, and verifying the deliverable against project scope statement to
determine whether work and deliverables meet requirements and product
|Outputs of Scope Verification|
Deliverables which are accepted after inspection and
necessary documentation is prepared. Rejected deliverables are also documents
with the reasons for non-acceptance. Scope verification process includes
documentation received from the customer or sponsor and acknowledging
stakeholder acceptance of the project’s deliverables.
Changes may be requested during inspection and reviews in
Scope Verification process. These change requests are submitted for review and
approval through the integrated change control process.
Recommended Corrective Actions
Customer, project team, top management or the
techno-commercial team may request changes which in turn, may generate certain
corrective actions to the deliverables.
Project Scope Control process controls the factors which
induce changes in project scope. It also controls the impact of those changes
on project scope. Scope Control is associated with Integrated Change Control
Process. This process makes sure that all requested changes and recommended
corrective actions are processed through the Integrated Change Control process.
This process also manages the actual changes when they occur
in coordination with other control processes. It controls scope creeps, which
is one of the biggest reasons of unsuccessful projects.
|Input of Scope Control|
Project Scope Statement
The project scope statement including scope baseline and
product scope is used.
Work Breakdown Structure and WBS Dictionary
The project scope statement includes scope WBS node, which
may be impacted by approved change request.
Project Scope Management Plan
It provides planned procedure for scope control process.
It provides information on work performance status of
complete and incomplete deliverables.
Approved Change Requests
Change requests which are approved by Integrated Change
Control process and may impact project scope.
Work Performance Information
Work performance information includes specifics of work
status like, schedule progress, information of completed and incomplete
deliverables, activities schedule, cost and qualify information.
|Tools and Techniques of Scope Control|
Change Control System
Scope change system is described in the project scope
management plan. It provides the procedures by which the project scope and
product scope can be changed. This change control system includes the
documentation, tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing
changes. The scope change control system is a part of project management
information system to control project scope.
Variance analysis provides project performance measurements
to assess the variation of actual values against the planned values. It helps
in determining the quantifiable impact of change.
Approved changes requests which affect the project scope may
necessitate the changes to:
WBS &WBS dictionary
Project scope statement
Project scope management plan
A re-planning exercise takes place at this stage in order to
accommodate all the changes and their impact.
Configuration Management System
The configuration management system is a sub system of the
overall project Management Information System. The System includes the process
for submitting proposed changes, tracking system for reviewing and approving
proposed changes, defining approval levels for authorizing changes, and
providing a method to validate approved changes. In most application areas the
configuration management system includes the change control system. The
configuration management system is also a collection of formal documented
procedure used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance
Identify a document the functional and physical characteristics
of a product or component
Control any changes to such characteristics
Record and report each change and its implementations
Support the audit of the product and the component to verify
the conformance to requirement.
|Output of Scope control |
Project Scope Statement (Updates)
Updates the project scope depending on the approved change
requests if needed. The Updated project scope statement becomes the new project
scope baseline for future changes.
Work Breakdown Structure (Updates)
Updates the WBS depending on the approved change request if
WBS dictionary (Updates)
Updates WBS dictionary depending on the approved change
requests if needed.
Scope Baseline (Updates)
Based on the approved change request, the original baseline
will get updated and a new baseline is created.
The results of the project scope control generates the request
changes which are processed for review and disposition according to the project
Integrated Change Control Process.
Recommended Corrective Action
Customer, project team, top management or the techno
commercial team may request changes which in turn may generate certain
correctives to the deliverables. This recommended corrective action helps to
bring expected future project performance in line with project management plan
and project scope statement.
Updates the Organizational Process Assets
Organizational Process Assets are updated with causes of
variances, reasoning behind the selected corrected action and lessons learned
from project Scope Change control.
Updates the Project Management Plan
Updates project management plan, if the approved change
requests have an affect on the project scope.
We can conclude by saying the aforementioned write up
highlights the importance of project scope management. All project managers use
project scope management throughout the project life cycle to identify and
control all aspects involved in a project without a planned scope so practical
deliverables are not possible. The different inputs, outputs and tools and
techniques of Project Scope Management have been discussed at length.