Implementing Dynamic Web Interfaces Using XSLT
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by Gil Shabat
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Implementing Dynamic Content using XSLT

In this section I’m going to provide the technical details needed to build a simple infrastructure for retrieving dynamic content from a SQL Server database and displaying it on a web page using XSLT.

As discussed above, the process of displaying dynamic content includes the following steps:

- Extracting database content as XML data.

- Retrieving XML from the appropriate stored procedure.

- Transforming XML into HTML using XSLT.

- Displaying dynamic content on the web page.

Step 1 - Extracting Database Content

The most flexible and powerful way to extract database content is simply to create stored procedures that output XML. This way all the data needed to for the interface can be easily extracted with one database call. A future change to the content only requires slight adjustments of the appropriate stored procedure without any changes to the calling code.

Listing 1 - builds an XML document with a user’s first and last name and a list of tasks this user needs to accomplish

CREATE procedure [dbo].[Get_User_Profile_XML]
@User_ID varchar(10)
SELECT     Users.[User_IDAS [@id], 
           Users.First_Name AS [@first],
           Users.Last_Name AS [@last],
           --all user tasks
                SELECT     Tasks_ID    AS [@id],
                     Task_Description     AS [@description]
                FROM dbo.Users_Tasks
                WHERE Users_Tasks.[User_ID] = Users.[User_ID]
                FOR XML PATH('task'),TYPE, ROOT('tasks')
FROM dbo.Users
WHERE Users.[User_ID] = @User_ID 

Note: This was written against SQL Server 2005 and can be easily adjusted to use FOR XML EXPLICIT for use with SQL Server 2000.

Listing 2 - the output XML of the above stored procedure

<user id="U12" first="John" last="Smith">
    <task id="T34" description="Annual review"/>
    <task id="T56" description="File my taxes"/>

Step 2 – Retrieving the XML Content from the Database

After building the appropriate stored procedure, we need to develop the code that can call this procedure on runtime and extract the appropriate data for the current user.

As increasing flexibility and lowering long-term maintenance costs are our primary goals, it is often best to keep the code needed to retrieve that database information almost entirely indifferent of the content it gets back. Extracting XML directly from the stored procedure gives us just that. We can keep changing the XML structure and content without requiring any changes to the calling code.

Listing 3 - Extract XML data from stored procedure and send XML (as a string)  to the client

private string GetUserProfileXML(string userId)
   const string PROCEDURE = "dbo.Get_User_Profile_XML";   
   using (SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(MY_CONNECTION_STRING))
   using (SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand())
    command.Connection = connection;
    command.CommandText = PROCEDURE;
    command.CommandType = CommandType.StoredProcedure;
    SqlParameter param = new SqlParameter("@User_ID", SqlDbType.VarChar, 10);
    param.Value = new SqlString(userId);
    using (XmlReader reader = command.ExecuteXmlReader())
       string resultXml = reader.ReadOuterXml();
       return resultXml;

Note: This opens a connection to SQL server, configures the command object and its @ID parameter, and reads the XML as a string from the XmlReader.

Step 3 –Transforming XML into HTML using XSLT

Our next task is to transform the XML into HTML that can be displayed to the current user.

XSLT can be quite handy and an ideal solution when it comes to transforming XML into HTML. XSLT offers enormous flexibility, as it can be quickly adjusted to handle any changes to the XML content or changes to new requirements.

XSLT files can be easily included as part of any web application, and although this is beyond the scope of this article, development teams can choose to slightly adjust this approach and globalize their web applications by developing different XSLT files per language supported.

Listing 4 - XSLT that might be used to process the XML data above

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="">
  <xsl:output method="html"/>
  <xsl:template match="user">
    <div class="userInfo">
        select="concat('Tasks for ', @first,' ',@last,':')"/>
    <div class="userTasks">
      <xsl:for-each select="tasks/task">
        <div class="userTask">
            <xsl:attribute name="href">
              <xsl:value-of select="concat('taskinfo.aspx?id=',@id)"/>
            <xsl:value-of select="@description"/>

Note: This outputs the heading for the page (first and last name) and then outputs every associated user task.

Listing 5 - the HTML result (without any applied CSS) might look like the following

Tasks for John Smith:
Annual review
File my taxes

Step 4 – Displaying Dynamic Content on the Web Page

The final step is to create the web page needed to process and display the appropriate user content. As described at the beginning of the article, we need to retrieve the XML from the database by calling the GetUserProfileXML function we developed earlier, transform the XML into HTML using the XSLT file above, and then finally to display the HTML to the user.

We first create an ASPX page with a server side DIV to ultimately contain the HTML. The page might look like the one on listing 6.

Listing 6

<%@ Page Language="C#" AutoEventWireup="true"  
CodeFile="userprofile.aspx.cs" Inherits="UserProfile" %>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" 
<html xmlns="" >
<head runat="server">
    <title>My User Profile Page</title>
    <form id="form1" runat="server">
    <div id="_divData" runat="server">

Note: The DIV is set to run on the server so the HTML can be assigned on the server.

Next, we need to develop the function that takes XML and transforms it into HTML using an XSLT file.

A function that accepts an XSLT file name and the XML data, and performs the transformation might look like the one on listing 7.

Listing 7

private string GetPageHTML(string xsltFileName,string xmlData)
  string fullXsltFilePath = Server.MapPath("~/" + xsltFileName);
  using (XmlReader dataReader = LoadXMLToReader(xmlData))
    XslCompiledTransform xslTrans = new XslCompiledTransform();
    using (MemoryStream outputStream = new MemoryStream())
      xslTrans.Transform(dataReader, null, outputStream);
      outputStream.Position = 0;
      using (StreamReader sr = new StreamReader(
        outputStream, Encoding.UTF8))
        string resultHtml = sr.ReadToEnd();
        return resultHtml;

Note: This function gets the full path to the XSLT file, loads the XML data into an XmlReader, and then uses XslCompiledTransform object to transform the XML into HTML and return the HTML as string to the calling code. Also, XslCompiledTransform is thread-safe object, so I would highly recommend caching it to further increase website performance.

Listing 8 - use the following helper utility to load an XML string into an XmlReader object 

private XmlReader LoadXMLToReader(string inputXML)
  byte[] xmlData = Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(inputXML);
  MemoryStream xmlStream = new MemoryStream(xmlData);
  xmlStream.Position = 0;
  XmlReader reader = XmlReader.Create(xmlStream);
  return reader;

Finally, to wrap everything up, here is what the Page_Load function on the web page might look like:

Listing 9

protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
  const string XSLT_FILE_NAME = "UserProfile.xslt";      
  //gets the current user id
  string userId = "U12";
  //loads the xml data from the database
  string xmlData = GetUserProfileXML(userId);
  //transform the XML into HTML
  string html = GetPageHTML(XSLT_FILE_NAME, xmlData);
  //shows the html to the user
  _divData.InnerHtml = html;

Note: The User ID is hard-coded but it should be retrieved dynamically based on the current logged-in user.

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User Comments

Title: Question   
Name: Pravin
Date: 2009-05-22 3:14:32 AM
Excellent article, But can you please tell in this approach will it be the best if performance is the key of the project. Thank you.
Title: Excellent Article   
Name: Daniella
Date: 2009-04-07 4:17:05 AM
This way is my favorite way to display data from database and xml. I just love xslt :)
Title: Is there any download of this project available.Please reply   
Name: Mohammad hussain
Date: 2009-04-03 5:43:44 AM
Is there any download of this project available.Please reply me back on
Title: Dynamic Web Interfaces Using XSLT   
Name: HoyaBaptiste
Date: 2009-03-18 5:15:55 AM
@Morten - You can do equally bad thing with controls. I have found XSLT more flexible especially in situations that would require nested repeaters.

FYI, to separate layers, you can put XHTML in a template (VIEW) (*.html) file and "bind" data (MODEL) as xml with the template using xslt. In this scenario, xslt is the data binding "glue" replacing xml "tokens" in xhtml with data from XML. Implemented this way, XSLT driven "views" can prove maintainable and easy to understand... once you see the pattern.

@Johnny - There are some Math functions you can do in XSLT. You can pass in values and objects (properties and methods must return simple types). For example, from an ASP.NET you could pass a UserPrincipal / UserIdentity and check "IsInRole" within your transform to "show/hide" a region of html.
Title: Maintenance hell   
Name: Morten
Date: 2009-03-18 3:32:39 AM
If you wish to go down this road of creating user interface via xslt, _be sure you document your work_! I myself recently faced maintenance hell when I had to take a project like this over from a guy who quit his job. He had documented next to nothing, and bear in mind xslt is not a markup you would read line by line, off the bat. It _will_ take a long time to get acquainted with this code and markup, certainly as long as it took to write it in the first place if there's no documentation covering it.
Title: Good article   
Name: Johnny
Date: 2009-03-18 12:02:39 AM
This article is really useful for developers and anyone wanna build a flexible dynamic website.
But i wonder, if i wanna do somthing like calculate, before displaying to user, how can i do with this approach?
Title: Provide references   
Name: Sirish
Date: 2009-03-17 10:32:31 AM
Please provide references to different classes used in the code.

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