LINQ to SQL (Part 5 - Binding UI using the ASP:LinqDataSource Control)
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by Scott Guthrie
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What is the <asp:LinqDataSource> control and how does it help?

The <asp:LinqDataSource> control is an ASP.NET control that implements the DataSourceControl pattern introduced with ASP.NET 2.0.  It is similar to the ObjectDataSource and SqlDataSource controls in that it can be used to declaratively bind other ASP.NET controls on a page to a datasource.  Where it differs is that instead of binding directly to a database (like the SqlDataSource) or to a generic class (like the ObjectDataSource), the <asp:linqdatasource> is designed to bind against a LINQ enabled data model.

One of the benefits of using the <asp:linqdatasource> control is that it leverages the flexibility that LINQ based ORMs provide.  You don't need to define custom query/insert/update/delete methods for the datasource to call - instead you can point the <asp:linqdatasource> control at your data model, identify what entity table you want it to work against, and then bind any ASP.NET UI control against the <asp:linqdatasource> and have them work with it.

For example, to get a basic product listing UI on my page that works against Product entities within a LINQ to SQL data model, I could simply declare a <asp:linqdatasource> on my page that points to my LINQ to SQL datacontext class, and identify the entities (for example: Products) in the LINQ to SQL data model I want to bind against.  I could then point a GridView at it (by settings its DataSourceID property) to get a grid-like view of the Product content:

Figure 2

Without having to-do anything else, I can run the page and have a listing of my Product data with built-in support for paging and sorting over the data.  I can add a edit/delete button on the Grid and automatically have update support as well.  I don't need to add any methods, map any parameters, or write any code for the <asp:LinqDataSource> to handle both these querying and updating scenarios - it can work against the LINQ to SQL data model we point it against and do these operations automatically.  When updates are made, the LINQ to SQL ORM will automatically ensure that all business rules and validation logic we've added (as partial methods) to the LINQ to SQL data model pass before persisting anything to the database.

Important: The beauty of LINQ and LINQ to SQL is that it obviously isn't tied to being used only in UI scenarios - or with particular UI binding controls like the LinqDataSource.  As you've seen in my previous posts in this series, writing code using the LINQ to SQL ORM is extremely clean.  You can always write custom UI code to directly work against your LINQ to SQL data model if you prefer, or when you find a UI scenario that isn't particularly suited to using the <asp:linqdatasource>. 

The below sections walkthrough using LINQ to SQL and the <asp:LinqDataSource> control to build the web application scenario I defined above.

Step 1: Define our Data Model

We'll begin working on the application by first defining the data model we'll use to represent our database. 

I discussed how to create a LINQ to SQL data model using VS 2008's LINQ to SQL designer in Part 2 of this series.  Below is a screenshot of the data model classes I can quickly create using the LINQ to SQL designer to model the "Northwind" sample database:

Figure 3

We'll revisit our data model in Step 5 of this tutorial below when we add some business validation rules to it.  But to begin with we'll just use the above data model as-is to build our UI.

Step 2: Creating a Basic Product Listing

We'll start our UI by creating an ASP.NET page with a <asp:gridview> control on it and use some CSS to style it:

Figure 4

We could write code to programmatically bind our data model to the GridView (like I did in Part 3 of this series), or alternatively I could use the new <asp:linqdatasource> control to bind the GridView to our data model. 

VS 2008 includes build-in designer support to make it easy to connect up our GridView (or any other ASP.NET server control) to LINQ data.  To bind our grid above to the data model we created earlier, we can switch into design-view, select the GridView, and then select the "New Data Source..." option within the "Choose Data Source:" drop-down:

Figure 5

This will bring up a dialog box that lists the available datasource options to create.  Select the new "LINQ" option in the dialog box and name the resulting <asp:linqdatasource> control you want to create:

Figure 6

The <asp:linqdatasource> designer will then display the available LINQ to SQL DataContext classes that your application can use (including those in class libraries that you are referencing):

Figure 7

We'll want to select the data model we created with the LINQ to SQL designer earlier.  We'll then want to select the table within our data model that we want to be the primary entity for the <asp:linqdatasource> to bind against.  For this scenario we'll want to select the "Products" entity class we built.  We'll also want to select the "Advanced" button and enable updates and deletes for the datasource:

Figure 8

When we click the "Finish" button above, VS 2008 will declare a <asp:linqdatasource> within our .aspx page, and update the <asp:gridview> to point to it (via its DataSourceID property).  It will also automatically provide column declarations in the Grid based on the schema of the Product entity we choose to bind against:

Figure 9

We can then pull up the "smart task" context UI of the GridView and indicate that we want to enable paging, sorting, editing and deleting on it:

Figure 10

We can then press F5 to run our application, and have a product listing page with full paging and sorting support (note the paging indexes at the bottom of the grid below):

Figure 11

We can also select the "edit" or "delete" button on each row to update the data:

Figure 12

If we flip into source view on the page, we'll see that the markup of the page contains the content below.  The <asp:linqdatasource> control points at the LINQ to SQL DataContext we created earlier, as well as the entity table we want to bind against.  The GridView then points at the <asp:linqdatasource> control (via its DataSourceID) and indicates which columns should be included in the grid, what their header text should be, as well as what sort expression to use when the column header is selected.

Figure 13

Now that we have the basics of our web UI working against our LINQ to SQL data-model, we can go ahead and further customize the UI and behavior.

Step 3: Cleaning up our Columns

Our GridView above has a lot of columns defined within it, and two of the column values (the SupplierID and the CategoryID) are currently foreign-key numbers -- which certainly isn't the ideal way to represent them to an end-user. 

Removing Unnecessary Columns 

We can start cleaning up our UI by deleting a few of the columns we don't need.  I can do this in source mode (simply nuke the <asp:boundfield> declarations) or in designer mode (just click on the column in the designer and choose the "Remove" task).  For example, we could remove the "QuantityPerUnit" column below and re-run our application to get this slightly cleaner UI:

Figure 14

If you have used the <asp:ObjectDataSource> control before and explicitly passed update parameters to update methods (the default when using DataSet based TableAdapters) one of the things you know can be painful is that you have to change the method signatures of your TableAdapter's update methods when the parameters based by your UI are modified.  For example: if we deleted a column in our grid (like above), we'd end up having to modify our TableAdapter to support update methods without that parameter.

One of the really nice things about the <asp:LinqDataSource> control is that you do not need to-do these types of changes.  Simply delete (or add) a column from your UI and re-run the application - no other changes are required.  This makes changing web UI built using the <asp:LinqDataSource> much easier, and enables much faster scenarios iterations within an application.


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User Comments

Title: Add new   
Name: Aditya
Date: 5/29/2010 1:38:06 AM
Comment:
Hi boss this is really nice.
Title: Add column on selecting   
Name: Peter
Date: 4/18/2010 7:19:36 PM
Comment:
Can you actually add column on the linq data source while selecting?
Title: Nice   
Name: vijay
Date: 3/2/2009 5:52:16 AM
Comment:
Nice detailed article.
Title: Adding new item   
Name: Evans
Date: 2/25/2009 1:28:39 PM
Comment:
Can we add new item directly with linq?
Title: Cleaning Up SupplierID and CategoryID   
Name: brian
Date: 10/12/2008 4:03:05 PM
Comment:
If the associated category or supplier no longer exists, you will get a NullReferenceException if you attempt to sort on the associated column in the GridView. Is there some way to handle this?

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