With RMAN one can perform various types of backup as shown
Open or closed – Open backup is the backup taken when the
database is open: a backup of online, read/write data files. Closed backup is
the backup of any part of the target database when it is mounted but not open.
Full or incremental – A backup of type full is the back up of a
data file that contains every allocated block in the file being backed up. And
an incremental backup is either a level 0 backup or a level 1 backup.
Consistent or inconsistent – A consistent backup is the backup
taken when the database is mounted but is not open after a normal shutdown.
Whereas an inconsistent backup is the backup taken of any part of target
database when the database is open or when a crash occurred, etc.
Backup database using RMAN
In non-archive mode, using dos prompt type:
the RMAN prompt gets displayed.
Connect to target database:Xxx<Dbid:123456789>
This is using the database of target file rather than the
A Dbid stands for Database Identifier which is a unique
identifier and found in all datafile headers and control files. It is used to
identify a file belongs to which database.
A simple example of taking backup in non-archived mode:
shutdown immediate; //shuts down the database
backup database; //starts backing up the database
alter database open;
In archivelog mode, the same command can also be fired to
backup the whole database.
backup database plus archivelog;
The backup command can backup the following type of files:
Database (which includes all datafiles as well as the current
control file and current server parameter file)
Tablespaces, except for locally-managed temporary tablespaces
Current server parameter file
Current control file
Archived redo logs
RMAN does not back up the following:
Online redo logs
Transported tablespaces before they have been made read/write
Client-side initialization parameter files, etc
Restore database using RMAN
Restoring and recovering a database using RMAN uses even more
simple commands than backup.
RMAN has the intelligence to find out which datafiles are to
be recovered or restored and the location of backed up files.